Room lemon - a type of evergreen citrus, belongs to the family rue. At the beginning of XI century lemon was imported from the countries of South-East Asian countries in the Mediterranean, where he found his second home. In the wild unknown. Dilute lemon not only as deciduous decorative and ornamental kvitchato-culture, but as fruit plants. In the indoor environment, regardless of age, 20 or lemon gives more fruit. Lemon also well known for its healing properties.
Lemon is a perennial, evergreen fruit tree or shrub to 1.5 m. The stem is erect, branched, tree growth as a bush, covered with a thin brown bark, young shoots are painted bright green. The shoots have 3-4 year periods of growth alternating with periods of rest. Crohn a lemon with good leaf cover, small leaves lush green, glossy, oval-pointed, with a pleasant aroma. In some varieties of deciduous sinuses are small spines. Leaves Lemon lives 2-3 years, they absorb carbon dioxide not only air, but also serves as a "repository" of nutrients. For the formation of a normal growth of the fetus should be at least 12-15 physiologically active layers. Fine roots lemon covered by special fungi (mycorrhiza) that help plants absorb nutrients from the soil. Therefore, transplantation and care for plants to take into account this feature of the roots of lemon.
Flowering lemon in different seasons, but the main flowering in spring it is. Simultaneously, the plants are buds, flowers and fruits. The flowers are small, white or slightly pink, solitary or collected in small clusters. The fruit lemon formed and mature slowly. From their zav`yazuvannya to mature in the open air is 140-170 days and indoors - 210-270 days. The fruit is oblong-oval with grow on top. M`yakot tender, juicy, acidic, with a high content of citric acid and vitamin C. Ripe fruits do not fall off. If you leave them on the tree, often amateurs and do it again later fruits begin to turn green, increase in size, but their quality is deteriorating. The highest quality fruit reaches the first spring bloom in the indoor environment they ripen in winter. Fruiting lemon lasts 50-60 years or more; fruiting period most commonly observed in 20- 40-year age. Fruiting lemon mainly on last year`s growth.
Medicinal properties of lemon
Medicinal properties of lemon were studied Chinese doctors in the XI century. In the skin of the fetus is held essential oil. M`yakot fruits are rich in ascorbic and citric acids, vitamins C, B, B2, B6, PP, E.
The fruit of the lemon is used as a vitamin, antipyretic, expectorant and as mozhchehonne and v`yazke. Dried peel is used as a stomachic. Lemon juice strengthens the walls of small blood vessels. Very useful lemon juice to people with high blood pressure.
It is noticed that the scent of lemon leaves reduces heart rate, lowers blood pressure, improves contractile function of the myocardium.
Lemon is a great way to prevent colds, which is especially exposed in winter and spring. During this period, there is nothing better than a cup of hot tea with lemon.
The most common varieties indoors
Pavlovsky lemon - is a small flowering houseplant constantly up to 1, 5-2 m, well adapted to indoor conditions, even with little sunlight. Blossom and bear fruit begins at the 5th year of life. To avoid exhaustion, the young leave some instances zavyazey, other buds are removed. Mass flowering - in March and April and in October, a small - throughout the growing season. Ripening lasts 9-10 months, remove them during the year, as maturing. The fruit is relatively large, their weight in the range of 150 to 240 g, in most cases, seedless. M`yakot light, flavorful. Well propagated cuttings that ukorinyuyutsya in 20-25 days.
Meyer Lemon also called Chinese or Chinese dwarf lemon, whose height reaches 1 m, the most diminutive of other varieties with a compact crown. Is a hybrid of lemon and orange flavors with relevant features. The plant, which has small dark green, jagged leaves beginning to bear fruit in the 2-3 year life, giving small (70-120 g) fruit round shape with a relatively thin skin. Ripen through 8-9 months after zavyazky. Fruiting more than Pavlovsky grade.
Chinese Lemon adapted for growing in dry with hot air, but winter dwarf requires high humidity, otherwise the plant loses almost all the leaves.
Novohruzynskyy is one of the highest grades of lemon, its height is 2 m or more. Crown of citrus wide spreading, with bright green leaves, with lots of spikes. Fruiting tree usually 2 least 3 times a year. With good care of the adult tree produces fruit 100-200. Fetal weight average size is about 120 g. Juicy m`yakot that has a pleasant taste and aroma, almost no seeds.
Grow a tree can only large winter garden area which is sufficient for such a high citrus.
Ponderoza Lemon is a large-hybrid medium height, broad spreading crown. It blooms in clusters, abundantly; The flowers are large, with long petals. Sometimes abundance of flowers prevents normal development of young plants. In biennial buds are removed to avoid attrition in three years leaving only 2-3 zav`yazi, four and five years - 6-7 in the seven years - 10. The fruit of this variety weighs 500 g. M`yakot light green with lots of seeds. Peel rough to the touch thickness of 1 cm.
This hybrid is perfect for growing in containers in medium-sized and large miniature winter gardens.
Less indoors can see the following varieties of lemon
Genoa Lemon. Slaboroslyh tree, almost without spines. Very productive variety, the fourth-fifth years of life accounted for about 50 fruits quality (with adult trees removed for 120-180 fruits). The quality of the fruit is higher than in other cultures lemon. Genoa bloom several times a year.
Gardeners recommend to place a tub of citrus in the southeastern part of the winter garden, a favorable effect on the yield of trees.
Lisbon Lemon is a vigorous tree with lots of thorns. Fruiting profusely. In the fourth and fifth year of life accounted for about 35 fruit trees removed from adult to 100-150 fruit of medium size (120-150 g). The variety is relatively resistant to drought and high air temperatures.
Lisbon - light-grade. When growing indoors is recommended to place the citrus near the south window, but pritenyat curtain from the summer scorching sun.
Kursk lemon close to Novohruzynskoho variety. Adult tree height not exceeding 1.5 m, a large oblong leaves, solitary or collected in small brush white flowers. The plant blooms in spring and autumn begins to bear fruit at 3 year. Productivity is high. The average weight of citrus fruits 130 g
Kursk lemon relatively resistant to air drought, tolerates shade.
Irkutsk lemon launched recently. It has a large pointed leaves, white flowers are collected in the brush to 15 buds. The plant blooms in spring and autumn begins to bear fruit at 3 year. Fruits are large to 700-800 g
Grow irkutsk lemons best winter gardens with a transparent ceiling, because it needs all year round sunshine.
Location. Spring - a very important period in the care of indoor lemons. At this time, lemons, like all plants, start to move in the growth stage and enter the stage of tying buds. Best buds develop more useful in zav`yazi lemons observed at + 14..18 ° C. Higher temperatures inhibit the plant, especially grafted on trifoliati (deciduous lemon) - zav`yazi buds and showered.
tTemperature. When the outside temperature is established above + 12 ° C, lemon can make the open air place on the balcony, terrace or garden. But we must remember that citrus oppose extreme temperatures and cool nights they must defend sacking, light blankets or gauze sladenoyu in two layers. Trees must first necessarily keep a low profile, gradually accustoming them to sunlight.
Keep lemons too long outdoor fall (to severe cold spells) do not, or they got into a warm room conditions can bloom. In the room lemons should make when the outside temperature drops to 10-12 ° C. The plant, used outdoors to cold, immediately transfer to a warm room, it should be within 7-10 days gradually accustom to room conditions (entered into the house only at night).
The best temperature for the winter indoor lemon 14-16 ° C with moderate humidity. Under such conditions, the plant well perezymovuyut, leaves them stored fruits ripen. Lemons, grafted on rootstock trifoliata (deciduous lemon), which in subtropical regions grafted lemons for better resistance, should spend the winter in the cold light areas with temperatures no higher than 12 ° C (average 7-8 °C).
The room should be aired every day, protecting plants from drafts. Do not keep the lemon trees on the windowsills, where the windows of the window. From windows to plant goes cold air and the room - a wave of warm air.
Lighting. Good lighting - an important factor in growing citrus. Lemon prefers bright sunny room, but in the summer should pritenyat from direct midday sun to avoid burns on the leaves. Best place plant off the west or east window. Shade-tolerant lemons with proper care and maintenance of the necessary treatment and grow good fruit even in northern windows.
Lemon trees need 12-hour coverage. Late autumn and winter (November to February) will need additional lighting fluorescent lamps for 4-5 hours daily.
Citrus sensitive to changes in lighting, so it should not move from place to place, otherwise it stops growing until adapt to new lighting conditions. Not tolerate the presence of lemons room indoors gases, smoke, fumes oil.
Watering. Lemon - water-loving plant. In spring and summer requires regular and abundant, but not excessive watering. Excess water is drained from the tray. Winter should be watered more moderately, in proportion as the top layer of soil dries, but the soil in the pot should not dry out completely. When drying earthen coma - leaves turn yellow and showered. Also dangerous and waterlogged soil (especially in cold rooms) - from stagnant water in the substrate rot the roots and the plant may die.
Watering perform well settled water, but irrigation is considered best for rainy and Potala water whose temperature at 2-3 °C above the surrounding environment. Spring plants watered in the morning, and in the summer and fall - late at night. In summer, the outdoor culture to avoid unnecessary fumes and to improve moisture conditions, soil should cover plant material or leaf humus.
Humidity. It can not tolerate lemons too dry air at high temperature, the room with central heating, where dry air reaches 40%. To increase humidity recommended 2-3 times a day to spray the leaves with warm water, you can also put the plant on the tray of wet pebbles or expanded clay.
Fertilizing. For normal growth and development lemon trees need to muck. Terms and introduction of fertilizers depend on the state of plants, seasons, size utensils (pots, tubs), and others.
During active growth from March to October, the plant fed every 10-14 days, liquid fertilizers, alternating with organic mineral feeding. In winter, if the plant is kept in a cold room, you should not feed. If kept in a slightly cool room, fed small portions 1 per month.
For shoot growth, leaf coloring, size and color of fruit and other features can be roughly determine which nutrients required by plants.
With a lack of nitrogen, such as the leaves turn yellow and nedorozvyvayutsya, especially in the fruit-bearing branches, reduced harvest the fruits, the fruits are smaller. Lack of phosphorus metabolism penalized; leaves fade and fall off, the fruits are often coarse and ugly. Potassium starvation causes an increase in the size and folding leaves, reduced yield and fruit shrinking. When iron deficiency chlorosis develops - the leaves turn pale, and yellow. The fruit is also lighter and fall off, and the tops of the branches begin to dry. Plants that receives less calcium and become weak, grow leaves, starting from the apical ends covered spots and fall off prematurely, shoots die.
For dressing, use a mixture of basic macro- and micronutrients. Most suitable fertilizer "citrus", "Effect", they trace the main value approximately equal. Fertilizers should make in moderation because lemons often suffer from excessive fertilizing.
Indoor lemons respond well to organic fertilizers types. The most common mold, bird feces (eg chicken) and slurry. Organic fertilizers are used only in the summer, you hold the plants in the courtyard. Where lemons not stand in court, instead of slurry used many watering plants krov`yanoyu water obtained when washing fresh meat.
Transplantation. Young plants should be transplanted annually in the spring. In adult specimens rather just change the top layer of soil and replanting spend every 3-4 years in loose soil, composed of turf, humus, leaf earth, peat and sand (2:1:1:1:1). Or use the prepared soil mixture for citrus plants. When transplanting (transshipment) earthen coma do not destroy, the seedling is placed in new dishes, adding fresh ground.
The best dishes for indoor citrus plants are burned clay pots with holes in the bottom. Under the big trees have vyorystovuvaty wooden tubs or boxes that should make of coniferous and oak.
Pots at planting and transplanting should not be large, since the excess undigested plant roots earth may die from souring soil. At the bottom of the pot set good drainage to earthen not perezvolozhyvsya.
Pruning. Citrus trees for better growth, branching and crown formation, acceleration of fruiting, cut unnecessary branches. If trees give free to grow, they form a single stem with no side branches or take the form of highly dense bush. Therefore, the young plants, which reached 15-20 cm tall, before growth (in February) cut top, leaving the lower cutoff 5-6 buds developed normally. These buds will soon sprout and form several shoots of the first order. Of these, leaving 3-4 going in different directions. Once the new side shoots completely finished their growth, they also tops cut off, leaving a branch every 3-5 buds. Created as follows second-order branches. Technology shoots forming the next three to four orders of magnitude similar. On shoots fourth order expires crown formation, then the tree comes into fruiting season. Aftercare for the crown is the systematic inculcation, removing patients, broken and growing inside crown shoots.
To obtain the annual yields along with pruning and crown pin shoots rationing is necessary to harvest - to remove part of the flowers. Needless flowering tree saps and reduces the amount of useful zav`yazey, while overly rich harvest of fruits produced low quality and the tree may not bear fruit next year. When rationing yield remove unnecessary and weak buds, flowers and even flowering branches. The more removed unnecessary buds, the more useful zav`yazey left.
Reproduction. Propagated by cuttings lemons, taps, grafting and seeds. To speed up the fruit bearing and obtain better quality, usually resort to vaccination. With fertile plants are stalk or eye and instill in 3-year-old rootstock (grown from seed), when the wood in their trunks rather matures. Comes fruiting 2-3 years after vaccination.
Cuttings - a simple and affordable way to breeding citrus. Lemons are grown from cuttings begin to bear fruit already in the third year. To use cuttings grown shoots last year, thickness 4-5 mm from the best fruit-bearing trees.