Ficus grows mainly in tropical countries (South Africa and in the Mediterranean, the islands and coasts of the Indian and Pacific oceans). Ficus belongs to the mulberry family. Occupation in lichuye over 1000 species growing in almost all continents of the globe, but is usually still in the tropical regions.
At room conditions prevalent following: Ficus Mountain (F. montana), Ficus elastica, or elastic (F. elastica), Ficus tiny (F. pumila), Ficus lyre (F. lyrata), Ficus plyuschevydnyy (F. hederacea), Ficus dulled (F. retusa), Ficus irzhavolystnyy (F. rubiginosa), Ficus ukorinyuyuchyysya (F. radicans), Bengal Ficus (F. benghalensis), and others.
Buying ficus. When buying a ficus need to know that it is not desirable to purchase the plant in the winter - temperature drops when moving lead to defoliation;
- look at the roots through the holes in the bottom of the pot, if visible blackened roots - do not trust;
- choosing a ficus in the store, slightly shake it, if it fall off a few leaves - take another copy. After moving home, wipe it leaves or rinse under a warm shower;
- sometimes the leaves are treated to impart shine, then they do not breathe and the plant is sick;
- in any case, place it apart from other plants - rare, but there are pests;
- a few weeks later transplanted plant. If you find the roots of a plastic grid - carefully remove it.
Lighting. Ficus likes a bright spot with prytenenyem from direct sun. In low light pestrolistye rubber plants lose their leaves color (becomes monotonously - green), stems ficus stretch, slowing its growth may fall off the leaves.
Temperature. Ficus feels good at a temperature of 25-30 °C in summer and 16-20 °C in winter.
Humidity. Responds well to swim in the warm showers 1-2 times a month, covering with plastic wrap earth.
Humidity should be less than 50 %. When the content in a room with dry air plant can be put on a tray of wet pebbles or expanded clay. Also it will be helpful spraying filtered water and wiping the leaves moist swab.
Irrigation. Summer should be watered abundantly ficus, but in any case not fill. The soil between waterings necessarily be dry from the top 2-3 cm. Watering Ficus usual way - from the top. Winter - watering more moderate.
Feeding. Fed Ficus spring and summer every 10-14 days. After transplantation within 2 months ficus does not need feeding - substrate usually contains a stock of fertilizers.
Winter ficus not need to fertilize, although under optimal conditions of artificial illumination and humidity possible feeding half the usual dose every 2 months. If the rubber plant is grown in an inert substrate, it fed the whole year.
Transplantation. Like most plants, ficus transplant usually produced in spring. When roots are completely obplely earth com and get out of the drainage holes - Ficus needs a transplant.
Young plants (age 1-3 years) transplanted into a pot with a diameter wider than two fingers each year. Older plants - every two, then every three years. Ficus required good drainage. In figs in tubs that are difficult to transplant, change the top layer of substrate impregnated with mineral salts.
Pruning. Formation ficus mainly do to the early growing season - in February. Pruning is not recommended in conjunction with a change - it can weaken the plant. Ficus benjamina can be formulated in the form of a bush, trunk and trunk bunk.
For kuschystosti main shoot of young ficus cut at a height of 12-17 cm in the result begins development of shoots from axillary buds . When side shoots reach lengths of 10-15 cm, they also cut above the kidneys, which is located outside of the crown.
For desktop trunk (tree with trunk and round crown) main shoot is cut at a height of 30-35 cm For floor - at a height of 80-100 cm Then pryschypuyuchy shoots, forming a round crown ficus. The trunk is always clear of lateral shoots.
Reproduction. Propagation ficus at home mainly by cuttings, although there are options reproduction air taps and seeds.
The best time for propagation by cuttings of ficus - spring. You can use the cuttings left after pruning ficus. Horizontal trim so that its length was 7-10 cm with 3-4 nodes (leaves) and the distance from the bottom to cut leaves - 2 cm. For the most suitable breeding top poluodresnevevshie cuttings. The handle should be placed in water for half an hour washing of milky juice, then dried in air for about an hour. Nurtured the roots of Ficus can be either in the water or sand mixed with coarse sand with peat (coco peat) in a ratio of 1:1.
Cuttings stuck in the substrate (sand) to 1.5 cm and covered with a transparent container or package to avoid evaporation and drying of leaves. After 3-4 weeks on the handle will appear young leaves and plants can be transplanted into a pot with a diameter of 10 cm in the soil it is recommended to add ¼ of the sand.
Plants in winter. The normal temperature of hibernation - 15-20 °C. Harmful excess moisture. Please do not fill with plant.
Pests. In very dry air to settle Ficus pests: quadraspidiotus perniciosus, mealybug, spider mites, thrips.
- fall leaves - too dry, was extreme temperatures (cold draft, for example) or the Gulf of soil;
- new leaves grow small, old yellow and fall off - a plant lacking nutrients, it is necessary to transplant;
- the edges of the leaves turn yellow and the leaves fall - overflow, you need to have time to dry soil;
- the leaves are dry and shriveled - dryness of the soil and the air, sunburn,
- sometimes fall off the lower leaves - the norm, but the barrel does not have to be completely naked;
- brown spots on the edges and tips of the leaves - too hot or overfeeding fertilizers.
Interesting. Ficus benjamina gets its name from the word "benzoin" - benzoic resin, which is obtained from the sap of the plant.